Procedure for estimating orbital debris risks

by James L. Crafts

Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Branch, Publisher: For sale by the National Technical Information Service] in [Washington, D.C.], [Springfield, Va

Written in English
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  • Space debris.

Edition Notes

StatementJames L. Crafts and James P. Lindberg.
SeriesNASA technical paper -- 2507.
ContributionsLindberg, James P., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific and Technical Information Branch.
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14664033M

This paper presents the results of investigations on the key issues of cost estimation for spacecraft and the influence of debris mitigation and shielding on cost. Mitigation strategies like the reduction of orbital lifetime and de- or re-orbit of non-operational satellites are methods to control the space debris by: As a result of 50 years of spaceflight, the useful orbits around Earth are littered with derelict satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and Author: Karl Tate. Orbital Debris Solutions Since , there has been one satellite-on-satellite collision between a defunct Russian satellite and an Iridium satellite. Yet the entire industry wants to spend billions of dollars using what we consider to be very questionable and expensive methods to lasso, harpoon, etc. large orbital debris. 1. Introduction. The number of orbital debris fragments in the size range of 1–30 cm has been estimated at over , This is a fairly large number and raises concerns regarding the safety of satellites in orbit and their ability to withstand impacts from orbital by:

Debris Estimating Formulas. The formulas shown below are useful when determining the amounts of debris requiring removal and processing after a disaster. Single-Family Residence: L x W x S x x VCM = ___ cubic yards of debris (cy) Where: L = length of building in feet. Space debris (also known as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage) is a term for defunct human-made objects in space—principally in Earth orbit—which no longer serve a useful function. This can include nonfunctional spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicle stages, mission-related debris and fragmentation debris. Examples of space debris . At altitudes of km, the time for orbital decay is often measured in decades. Above 1, km, orbital debris will normally continue circling the Earth for a century or more. Since most of the accounted for orbital debris is located in the KM range, it would take several decades for orbital decay to significantly reduce the amount of. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it.

tracked orbital debris (generally 10 cm or greater) as a function of altitude (in 20 km altitude bins) for 5 June [3]. Figure 2 also illustrates the concentration of orbital debris in orbits occupied by a number of communications, weather, and surveillance satellites between km and about km altitude. The orbital debris. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office is located at the Johnson Space Center and is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the . Orbital debris (aka. space junk) is one of the greatest problems facing space agencies today. After sixty years of sending rockets, boosters and satellites into space, the situation in the Low. Dr Anselmo is part of a 3-person group investigating models of the orbital debris environment, short- and long-term debris field evolution, the propagation of debris clouds, evaluation of spacecraft risk, effectiveness of mitigation measures, survivability and re-entry event predictions.

Procedure for estimating orbital debris risks by James L. Crafts Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Procedure for estimating orbital debris risks. [James L Crafts; James P Lindberg; United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Scientific and Technical Information Branch.]. Modeling of the orbital debris environment risks in the past, present, and future Mark Matney Orbital Debris Program Office NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas, USA [email protected] ABSTRACT Despite of the tireless work by space surveillance assets, much of the Earth debris environment is not easily measured or tracked.

users to understand the long-term risks of debris collisions with their spacecraft • NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM represents NASA’s best estimate of the current and near future orbital debris environment.

– The environment is dynamic and must be updated periodicallyFile Size: 4MB. National Space Policy and the U. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices and to mitigate the risk to human life and space missions due to orbital debris and meteoroids.

In this NPR, orbital debris is defined as any object placed in space (see Pb) by humans that remains in orbit and no longer serves any useful Size: KB. Table 3–1 shows predicted risks with and without the meteoroid and debris risk, using NASA’s guideline for maximum critical risk from meteoroids and orbital debris of 1/ (The median and mean risks are noted to establish a baseline uncertainty of about 7 percent.).

Orbital debris (duh BREE) is "junk" that is circling Earth. It is pieces from spacecraft. Humans have been launching objects into space for more than 50 years. Most of those objects have fallen back to Earth. A piece of debris falls back to Earth about once a day.

These objects either land or burn up in the atmosphere. Most objects that return. Nick Johnson was the chief scientist for Orbital Debris at the NASA Johnson Space Center. He served as the agency authority in the field of orbital debris, including all aspects of environment definition, present and future, and the operational and design implications of the environment to both manned Procedure for estimating orbital debris risks book robotic space vehicles operating in Earth orbit.

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, located at the Johnson Space Center, is recognized world-wide for its initiative in addressing orbital debris issues. The April issue of Orbital Debris Quarterly News is now available.

This issue includes the articles, "Three Recent Breakup Events," "The New NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model ," and "Composite Material Char Rate and Strength Retention Study at University of Texas at Austin," among other pieces.

As described in Chapter 1, the number of cataloged space objects has increased nearly linearly sinceat an average rate of about objects per year.

New spacecraft, the mission-related debris and rocket bodies associated with those spacecraft, and the fragments caused by. 4 FEMA DEBRIS ESTIMATING FIELD GUIDE T he DTFL should clearly define the accuracy and precision requirements for disaster debris estimates in the FEMA Debris Operations Strategy to achieve the desired results.

A key consideration in defining estimate requirements is how the estimate will be used, e.g., if a debris estimate is only used. Space Debris: Models and Risk Analysis - Ebook written by Heiner Klinkrad. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices.

Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you 4/5(2). teams conducting debris (quantity and cost) estimation for a Public Assistance (PA) damage assessment.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) PA Program debris eligibility and quantification methods and tools are listed.

Ineligible debris should also be identified, classified and quantified in a debris estimation damage assessment.

It may be. Politics and government. U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices [open pdf - KB] "The United States Government has formally stated in this document its objectives and practices of limiting the amount of space debris.

processes by which orbital debris is created and the methodologies used to study orbital debris, to analyze the risks, and to develop strategies for combating the effects of orbital debris are highly technical in nature.

Anyone interested in the legal issues presented byFile Size: KB. To understand the risks associated with this flight path and altitude—it had an apogee of km and a perigee of km, putting it right in a high-debris band—we need to know how much junk it. Orbital debris generally refers to material that is on orbit as the result of space initiatives, but is no longer serving any function.

Orbital debris can return to Earth via controlled or planned. Orbital Debris Assessment Report (ODAR) Rev. A 3 Self-assessment and OSMA assessment of the ODAR using the format in Appendix A.2 of NASA-STD A self-assessment is provided below in accordance with the assessment format proovided in Appendix A.2 of NASA-STD In the nal ODAR document, this assessment will re ect any inputs from.

operational debris or residues from collisions; 94% of catalogued orbital objects are nowadays orbital debris. A complete presentation of the topic has been published with the year revision of the IAA Position Paper on Orbital Debris1.

There are only very limited ways to improve the risks or effects of collisions. Estimating Manuals will be the general guideline as to the industry’s standards of construction. The Department will provide current copies of these guidelines for use by the Estimating staff.

The R. Means Manuals are not retained, but the cost sheets supporting any given estimate are retained along with other estimate Size: 57KB. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft.

Potential methods to protect spacecraft are explored. The report also takes a close look at the projected future growth in the debris population and 5/5(1). brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America’s space agency.

Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.

The impact of orbital debris collisions largely depends on the size of the debris involved in collision and the speed of the impact.

For small pieces of. for Limiting Orbital Debris,” requires each program and project to conduct a formal assessment of the potential to generate orbital debris during deployment, mission operations, and after the mission has been terminated.

This NASA-STD serves as a companion to NPR andFile Size: KB. to the orbital debris environment. • If necessary, provide recommendations for a new policy at the national and international levels.

– Follow the same path for the establishment of the U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices (), the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines (), and the UN Space Debris Mitigation. Recent projections of debris includeobjects between one and 10 cm, and more than tens of millions of objects smaller than one cm.

The estimated rate of debris accumulation will grow significantly over the next years if left unchecked, and the risk of future collisions between spacecraft and orbital debris will also increase. Orbital Debris Challenges for Space Operations J.-C. Liou, PhD • Orbital debris is any human-made object in orbit about Vehicle risks from MMOD impact damage were in the range of 1 in to 1 in per mission (OD to MM ~ at ISS altitude) – Impacts by small, untracked debris could be responsible for many.

the agency responsible for addressing meteoroids and orbital debris. This report examines NASA’s efforts to understand the meteoroid and orbital debris environment, what NASA is and is not doing to mitigate the risks posed by this threat, and how they can improve their programs.

Background O n JanuChina conducted anFile Size: 1MB. NASA Procedural Requirements for Limiting Orbital Debris PREFACE Purpose The purpose of this NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) document is to define res In this NPR, orbital debris is defined as any object placed in space (see Pb) Meteoroids are defined as naturally occurring free-flying space objects and are This NPR specifies NASA.

The measured orbital position can be out by several km compared with the actual location – an inaccuracy that makes orbital manoeuvres to avoid debris problematic using this data. Indeed, it has caused some space operators to form their own tracking organisations, such as the Space Data Association.

Space Debris: Models and Risk Analysis. the application of the covariance estimation procedure to the entire TLE catalogue becomes feasible. A local orbital debris flux analysis is.

The emerging problem of floating space junk becomes more and more evident and bothersome. Spacecraft and satellites are currently subject to high-speed impacts by more t trackable.Data provided by the Space Debris Sensor improves ISS safety by monitoring the risks and generating more accurate estimates of how much small-scale debris exists in space.

The SDS is the first flight demonstration of the DRAGONS (Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital NASA-Navy Sensor) developed and matured by the NASA Orbital Debris Program.